CBSE Class 12th Organic Chemistry
CBSE Class 12th Organic Chemistry
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* Classification of Solids based on different binding forces : Molecular,Ionic Covalent and Metalics solids * Amorphous and Crystalline solids(elementary idea) * Unit Cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices * Calculation of density of unit cell * Packing in solids * Packing efficiency, Voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic until cell * Point defects * electrical and magnetic properties * Band theory of metals, Conductors * Conductors, Semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors
* Types of Solutions * Expression of Concentration of solution of solids in liquids * Solubility of gases in liquids * Solid Solutions * Colligative Properties-relative lowering of vapour pressure * Raoult’s law * Elevation of B.P. * Depression of freezing point * Osmotic pressure * determination of molecular masses using colligative Properties * Abnormal molecular mass * Vant Hoff factor
* Redox reactions : Conductance in electronic solutions * Specific and molar conductivity variations of Conductivity with concentration * Kohlrausch’s Law * Electrolysis and laws of electrolysis * Dry Cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells * Lead accumulator * EMF of a cell * Standard electrode potential * Nemst equation and its application to chemical cells * Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell * Fuel Cells * Corrosion
* Rate of a reaction * Factors affecting rates of reaction : Concentration , temperature * Catalyst : Order and molecularity of a reaction * Rate law and specific rate constant * Integrated rate equations and half life * Concept of collision theory * Activation Energy * Arrhenious Equation
* Adsorption – Physisorption and chemisorption * Factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids * Catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous * Activity and Selectivity: enzyme catalysis * Colloidal State : distinction between true Solution * Colloids and Suspensions : lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids * Properties of colloids : Tyndall effect, Brownian movement,electrophoresis, Coagulation * Emulsions – types of emulsions
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
* Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, Oxidation, * Reduction electrolytic method and refining * Occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium * Copper,Zinc and Iron
Some p-Block Elements
* General Introduction to p – Block Elements * Group 15 elements : General Introduction * Electronic Configuration * Occurance * Variation of Properties * Oxidation States * Trends in chemical reaction * Anomalous properties of first element of the group * Boron Physical and Chemical Properties * Some Important Compounds : borax, boric acids, Boron hydrides * Group 16 Elements : General Introduction * Electronic Configuration * Occurrence * Variation of Properties * Oxidation States * Trends in Chemical Reactivity * Anomalous behaviour of first elements * Carbon – catenation * Allotropic forms * Physical and Chemical Properties * Uses of some important compounds : Oxides * Important Compounds of silicon and a few uses : silicon tetrachloride, Silicones, silicates and zeolites * Group 17 elements : General Introduction, electronic configuratio, Oxidation States, Occurrence * Trends in Physical and chemical properties * Compounds of halogens : Preparation, Properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid * Interhalogen Compounds * Oxoacids of halogens * Group 18 elements : general Introduction, Electronic Configuration, Occurrence * Trends in Physical and chemical properties, uses
d and f Block Elements
* General Introduction * Electronic Configuration * Occurrence and characteristics of transition metals * General trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metalic character, ionization enthalpy, Oxidation states * ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, Magnetic properties, interstitial compounds,alloy formation, * Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, Chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences * Actinoids – Electronic Configuration, oxidation states and Comparison with lanthenoids.
* Coordination Compounds : Introduction, Ligands, Coordination number,Colour, * Magnetic Properties and shapes * IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compound, bonding * Werner’s theory VBT,CFT : Isomerism (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
* Haloalkanes : Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, Optical rotation * Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond, Substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) * Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons,DDT
Alcohhols,Phenols and Ethers
* Alcohols : Nomenclature, Methods of Preparation,Physical and chemical Properties,Identification of Primary,Secondary and tertiary alcohols,mechanism of dehydration * Phenols : Nomenclature, Methods of preparation, Physical and chemical properties,acidic nature of phenol,electrophillic substitution reactions, Uses of phenols. * Ethers : Nomenclature,Methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties
Aldehydes, Keton and Carboxylic acids
* Aldehydes and ketones : Nomenclature, Nature of carbonyl group, Methods of preparation,physical and chemical properties and mechanism of nuclophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes * Carboxylic Acids : Nomenclature,acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties
Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
* Amines : Nomenclature, Classification, Structure, Methods of Preparation, Physical and chemical Properties,identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines. * Cyanides and Isocyanides : will be mentioned at relevant places in context * Diazonium salts : Preparation, Chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry
* Carbohydrates – Classification, monosachharide, D-L Configuration,Oligosachharides,polysaccharides, Importance * Proteins – Elementary idea of a – amino acids, peptide bond,polypeptides,proteins, Primary Structure, Secondary Structure, Tertiary Structure and quaternary structure,denaturation of protein,enzymes. * Hormones – Elementary idea * Vitamins – Classification and functions * Nucleric Acids: DNA and RNA
* Classification – Natural and Synthetic,Methods of Polymerization,Copolymerization * Some Important Polymers : natural and synthetic like polythene,nylon, polymers, bakelite rubber * Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers
Chemistry in Everyday Life
* Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers,antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics,antacids, antihistamines * Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents,elementary idea of antioxidants * Cleaning agents – Soaps and detergents, Cleansing action